Dagstuhl Workshop on Narrative and Social Graphs

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Graphing a Facebook network without information about interaction frequency.

I’m currently in Germany for the Dagstuhl seminar Artificial and Computational Intelligence in Games: AI Driven Game Design. Wednesday, I was part of a workshop focusing on social network analysis and its application to narrative: how are social networks graphed? What kinds of information can they contain? What data could be associated with an edge — number and recency of interactions? Emotional valence of average interaction? More than this?

And — given the graphs available — how might we build interesting narrative game mechanics that in some way made use of a knowledge of the network? Might there be games that turned on either a human or an AI interacting to modify a social graph as the primary mode of interaction? What about gameplay experience interventions that were triggered by the discovery of particular graph states?

This is interesting to me in part because I feel a lot of our game design is currently poor at facilitating stories about communities and group dynamics.

Screen Shot 2017-11-22 at 5.58.38 PMOne of several contributions from the graph theory members of the group was the idea of a “motif,” a recurring pattern from within a larger graph, which could be reasoned about. The motif here might represent the idea of a small family — all the members know one another. Many other social situations could be represented this way, including ideas like “one character knows everyone else” or “this character is a loner.”

It occurred to us that this might make the useful basis for an authoring tool where motifs were used to specify prerequisites and post-conditions for narrative moves — a little the way StoryNexus specifies numeric range prerequisites and post-conditions for its storylets.

Depending on the rest of the system, eligible narrative moves might be presented as options to the player — it’s up to you to choose which one you want to use to advance the story — or executed by an AI automatically, in which the AI would need to select among all currently valid narrative moves.

The author would have a palette of motifs to work with, and could apply these to a story segment to say “if this configuration of relationships exists in the game, the following narrative segment is eligible for use; please fill each role with an available character who fits that slot.” (This is a system with dynamic requirements, a bit more flexible than a quality-based narrative system.)

For instance, here’s how this system might express a narrative moment involving a love triangle:

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Mailbag: Writing Commercial IF for Mobile Devices

Dear Emily,

I am a professional writer–22 years plus of making my living from my pen–who is just now sticking my toes into the world of IF… I recently had a chance to revisit the world of IF in drawing up a planned project for a grant proposal. It’s been many years since I’ve played in this world, and it’s changed monumentally. Your blog has been tremendously helpful in giving me an overview.

I haven’t yet, however, come across an entry from you where you really get into the nuts and bolts of which engine you consider the best for independent writers hoping to create a commercially successful game as a  phone app.

Like a lot of newbies to this form, I don’t come from a programming background, and have little facility with coding. After trying Adrift and Inklekwriter, along with a couple of others, I settled on Quest, but I’m finding the lack of a GUI and the amounts of coding that are expected pretty daunting.

Before I jump down yet another half-dozen rabbit holes to try to find the best solution for me, I thought I’d ask you. What, right now, November 2017, would you recommend as the best IF engine for creating content for a phone-based app, that would work best for experienced writers with little coding experience?

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So the short answer to this is: I don’t know of any solution that requires no programming or technical savvy, but that will let you write free-concept, text-only IF and sell it on mobile, with reasonable odds of making money, and without going through anyone else’s platform.

“Commercially successful” does introduce technical requirements, because that does imply that you’re going to need attractive, non-generic screenshots, and that it has to be an app; merely being able to play the resulting IF on a phone, e.g. as browser-based IF, is not enough to meet the asker’s criteria.

Furthermore, most genuinely commercially successful IF has the advantage of an experienced studio putting it together (Big Fish’s Lifeline series, Choices), a really attractive front end/additional gameplay (inkle’s stuff), and/or a brand concept that has been developed with a bunch of titles over time (Choice of Games, Episode, Choices again).

Also, I consider “commercially successful parser” to be such a hard target that I’m not covering it here. And it’s harder to get solid results out of a parser game unless you’re willing to code more. So I think we can rule that out.

However, there are a few approaches that I consider currently realistic, given the right combination of circumstances.

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Mid-November Link Assortment

Events

IF Comp is nearly finished, so keep an eye out for results!

ICIDS, the academic digital storytelling conference, is in progress as we speak, in Funchal, Portugal.

New Releases

Robin Johnson’s classic Detectiveland is now available on Android.

Crowdfunding

Kate Compton presents this set of ideation cards to help with the design of generative art. Some really cool ideas in here.

Articles and Reviews

I wrote about some of the IF Comp games for RockPaperShotgun.

Bobby Lockhart proposes five unusual and novel dialogue mechanics. Some of these look like they’d require a lot of additional content in order to function in an interesting way — NPCs who have to be able to answer what you didn’t pick as well as what you did might require a bunch of extra content, possibly. And methods that involve putting together strings of words from a possible selection could be needlessly frustrating or slow for any extended conversation, so it would have to be something where there was expressive power in a fairly short space.

Game Narrative Toolbox (Heussner/Finley/Hepler/Lemay)

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The Game Narrative Toolbox is designed to guide readers to become professional narrative designers — perhaps a seemingly slight difference from game writers, but this approach includes a certain amount of level design and mechanical design in the purview of the narrative designer, as opposed to simply producing words.

The book is structured as a textbook, with exercises at the end of each chapter, and lots of examples, images, and sidebars.(Indeed, I found the layout a little distracting; there are often several things going on on any particular page, in a way that often made me feel slightly anxious I might miss a part of what I was supposed to be reading because I’d forgotten to go back to the beginning of a multi-page sidebar. I am pretty sure this has to do with quirks in my own reading style, however.)

This is not to say that the book is unstructured. A lot of thought has clearly gone into making it useful for someone to use while self-training and transitioning to a job search. The exercises are designed to gradually build up the user’s portfolio of samples, taking the writer from a relative novice to someone with sample dialogue, narrative structure diagrams, and even practice resume/cover letter content. Meanwhile, the chapters follow the lifespan of development: preproduction planning, development of world and story and characters, writing the main content, and troubleshooting.

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End of October Link Assortment

Upcoming Events.

November 4, the SF Bay Area Meetup gets together to look at a few IF Comp games and possibly the start of Bob Bates’ Thaumistry as well.

Also November 4, the Baltimore/DC IF Meetup discusses the Comp game Alice Aforethought.

November 9, Hello Words meets in Nottingham to write IF.

PROCJAM, the procedural generation jam, runs now through November 12. It is very friendly, very informal, and will accept items that might not technically be games, if that’s what you’d prefer to do.

November 11-12 is AdventureX in London, where there will be talks about narrative games of all kinds including IF.

Also November 10-11 in Pittsburgh, Demosplash is a huge demoscene party.

November 15 is the next PR-IF meetup in Cambridge, MA.

Wordplay 2017 takes place in the Toronto reference library under the guidance of the Hand Eye Society, November 18. The event always features talks focused on word-based gameplay as well as a showcase of submitted games.

IF Comp continues, with judging running through mid-November.

Articles, Podcasts, Reviews

There’s plenty to read about the IF Comp games as reviewers continue to engage with those. I particularly enjoyed Sam Ashwell’s thoughts about survival and crafting mechanics in his review of Textcraft: Alpha Island. Dhakajack has also been covering a large selection of the games, and you can find further discussion of individual games on the intfiction forum.

Meanwhile The Short Game podcast covers some favorites from IF Comp as well.

Also recommended: Jimmy Maher on Kinoautomat and Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective.

From Stella Wisdom, some slides on the British Library’s support for, co-creation of, and curation of literary games including interactive fiction. The British Library has been a great supporter, including making Rob Sherman writer in residence for a time and housing the London edition of WordPlay, and running a weeklong IF training camp this past summer. This slide set includes even a few other projects I wasn’t previously aware of.

New Releases.

Mentioned earlier on this blog on their October 26 release were Don’t Make Love, the praying mantis conversation game, and Bury Me, My Love, the Lifeline-esque piece about communication with a Syrian refugee.

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Screen Shot 2017-10-22 at 4.26.53 PM.pngSeedship, the colonization game that’s been available for web for a while, is now out for Android. I really enjoyed this one — it feels deceptively simple but there are a load of entertaining procedural outcomes. A phone or tablet seems like a good format for it, too — it’s a fun piece to while away a few minutes.

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New from Choice of Games is The Superlatives: Aetherfall, which looks to be a steampunk/superhero mashup:

Lead a superpowered team of “Superlatives” to defend 19th-century Victorian London! Battle a Martian warship, clockwork monsters, and nefarious inventors.

The Superlatives: Aetherfall is a 260,000-word interactive novel by Alice Ripley. It’s entirely text-based, without graphics or sound effects, and fueled by the vast, unstoppable power of your imagination.

The prestigious Society for the Advancement of Individuals of Superlative Talent and the Protection of the Queen has invited you to become their newest member! But on the very day the Society plans to initiate you, unknown Villains destroy the Society headquarters and kidnap your colleagues. As the sole remaining full member of the Superlative Society, you must initiate new recruits to investigate the abduction.

Meet your team: Nimble—faster than lightning; Wailer—a “banshee” with sharp blades and sonic shriek attacks; Arturek—the gruff Martian warrior; Tua—a Venusian who commands the power of plants; and Black Orchid—a strangely familiar new recruit. Your efforts are bolstered by your faithful clockwork assistant, Gatsby, and your always-butting-in rival, Hallow.